Read more about the different challenges below:
Providing renewable energy for all
The overall biggest challenge remains to decarbonize and reduce CO2 emissions by phasing out the use of fossil fuels as energy source. Additionally, there are concerns that the developments should benefit everyone equally. Developing countries with little access to electricity should be taken into account, as well as low-income communities.
Reducing the fluctuating availability of renewable energy
A key challenge remains the relative unreliability of renewable energy sources as a result of their dependence on natural factors. For electricity to be delivered, the electric grid requires that supply and demand are in balance, the intermittency of renewable sources should thus be covered. This is possible at the supply side, via reliable energy sources or at the demand side through energy carriers or solutions that manage demand.
Developing a (digital) energy infrastructure
The use of electricity will increase substantially as a result of the energy transition, due to more electric sources and more electric devices. To manage this, the electric grid and distribution networks should adapt. They require upgrades and incorporation of digital developments that can; increase net capacity and manage demand side solutions to cover for variability of electricity supply. Additionally, hydrogen infrastructure requires developments to reach its full potential.
Saving and reducing energy consumption
The overall challenge of fossil fuel consumption reduction can also be achieved by improving energy efficiency. This can be done by improving end-use efficiency and conversion efficiency of fossil fuel utilizations but can also be the result of measures to diminish the amount of energy lost.
Managing the downsides of energy production
Despite being a better alternative than traditional fossil fuel energy generation, most renewable energy sources have their downsides that remain challenges to the goal of fully sustainable energy provision. For example, they require rare elements and metals or vast areas of land. It is essential that renewable energy should not keep causing environmental harm through the destruction of ecosystems and depletion of natural resources.
Additionally, the current energy mix still contains significant fossil fuels, which releases vast amounts of carbon into the air.